In cloud computing, the word cloud (also phrased as
“the cloud”) is used as a metaphor for “the Internet,”
so the phrase cloud computing means “a type of Internet-based
computing,” where different services — such as servers, storage and
applications — are delivered to an organization’s computers and devices
through the Internet.
Cloud computing is used to describe a
variety of different types of computing concepts that involve a
large number of computers that are connected through a real-time communication network (typically the Internet).
In science, cloud
computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network and means the ability to run a
program on many connected computers at the same time.
resources are usually not only shared by multiple users but as well as
dynamically re-allocated as per demand. This can work for allocating resources
to users in different time zones.
serves European users during European business hours with a specific
application (e.g. email) while the same resources are getting reallocated and
serve North American users during North America’s business hours with another
application (e.g. web server). This approach should maximize the use of
computing powers thus reducing environmental damage as well, since less power,
air conditioning, rackspace, and so on, is required for the same functions.
claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure
costs, and focus on projects that differentiate their businesses instead of
allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with
improved manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly
adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.
of application service provisioning that
run client server software on a remote
(Platform as a Service), ‘IaaS’ (Infrastructure as a Service), ‘HaaS’ (Hardware
as a Service) and finally ‘EaaS’ (Everything as a Service). End users access
cloud-based applications through a web browser or a light-weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and user’s data are stored on
servers at a remote location.
the 1990s, telecommunications companies,who previously offered primarily
dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering virtual
(VPN) services with comparable quality of service, but at a lower cost. By
switching traffic as they saw fit to balance server use, they could use overall
network bandwidth more effectively.
began to use the cloud symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the
provider was responsible for and what users were responsible for. Cloud
computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network
and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available
to more users through time sharing, experimenting with algorithms to provide
the optimal use of the infrastructure, platform and applications with prioritized
access to the CPU and efficiency for the end users.
Amazon played a key role in all the
development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers, which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of
their capacity at any one time, just to leave room for occasional spikes.
found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal
efficiency improvements whereby small, fast-moving “two-pizza teams”
(teams small enough to feed with two pizzas) could add new features faster and
more easily, Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud
computing to external customers, and launched Amazon
(AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006.
API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. In early 2008, OpenNebula, enhanced in the RESERVOIR European
Commission-funded project, became the first open-source software for deploying
private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds.
towards more and more services was described as “Dynamic Web”.
contribution focused in particular in the need for better meta-data able to
describe not only implementation details but also conceptual details of
devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware
autonomic, and utility computing have led to
a growth in cloud computing.
is commonly used in science to describe a large agglomeration of objects that
visually appear from a distance as a cloud and describes any set of things
whose details are not inspected further in a given context.
- Meteorology: a weather cloud is
- Mathematics: a large number of
points in a coordinate system in mathematics is seen as a point cloud;
- Astronomy: stars that appear
crowded together in the sky are known as nebula (latin for mist or cloud),
e.g. the Milky Way;
- Physics: The indeterminate
position of electrons around an atomic kernel appears like a cloud to a
Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on
telephony schematics and later to depict the Internet in computer
The cloud symbol was used to represent the Internet as early as 1994, in which
servers were then shown connected to, but external to, the cloud symbol.
to cloud computing in its modern sense can be found as early as 2006, with the
earliest known mention to be found in a Compaq internal document. Urban legends claim that usage of the expression
is directly derived from the practice of using drawings of stylized clouds to denote
networks in diagrams of computing and communications systems or that it derived
from a marketing term.The term became popular after Amazon.com introduced the Elastic
evolution and adoption of existing technologies and paradigms. The goal of
cloud computing is to allow users to take beneﬁt from all of these
technologies, without the need for deep knowledge about or expertise with each
one of them. The cloud aims to cut costs, and help the users focus on their
core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles.
computing is virtualization. Virtualization abstracts the
physical infrastructure, which is the most rigid component, and makes it
available as a soft component that is easy to use and manage.
and reduces cost by increasing infrastructure utilization. On the other hand, autonomic
computing automates the process through which the user can provision resources on-demand. By minimizing user involvement,
automation speeds up the process and reduces the possibility of human errors.
day. Cloud computing adopts concepts from Service-oriented
(SOA) that can help the user break these problems into services
that can be integrated to provide a solution.
computing is a kind of grid computing; it has evolved from grid computing
by addressing the QoS (quality of service) and reliability problems. Cloud computing provides the tools and
technologies to build data/compute intensive parallel applications with much
more affordable prices compared to traditional parallel